State Aid & Sports – How to play it by the rules?
This brochure explains, on the basis of many examples of real cases, that the State aid rules must also be taken into account in the sports sector. The brochure is available in the languages listed below.
RPM is a form of vertical price fixing where the manufacturer tries to excess control over a down-stream market where it is not directly active, for example the retail market.
According to the European Commission’s Guidelines on Vertical Restraints RPM may restrict competition in a number of ways [paragraph 48]. The Commission’s starting point is that an agreement which includes RPM is presumed to restrict competition and thus to fall within Article 101(1) TFEU.
Despite the Commission’s guidance, the way in which the European member states deal with RPM differs. The Resale Price Maintenance brochure gives a brief explanation of the state of play in each member state. The brochure is available in the languages listed below.
Most Favoured Nation Clause
MFN clauses or parity obligations is the practice whereby a seller is required to offer its goods or services to a party on conditions that are no less favourable than the conditions offered by the seller to other parties. MFN clauses is a condition in a vertical agreement, for example between a hotel and a hotel booking platform.