Applying for leniency in cartel cases: not always a safe bet

Recently the European Commission published the public version of its decision to fine recycling companies Campine, Recyclex and Eco-Bat €68 million for their participation in a car battery recycling cartel. As far as we know, this is the first time the Commission sets a fine relating to purchasing activities in the circular economy. This case is also remarkable because purchasing combinations are often held to generate efficiencies for the benefit of consumers. The case also shows that a race for leniency can be detrimental to one’s (in this case: Campine’s) legal position. (more…)